What Are Known Causes And Risk Factors For Anal Cancer
As with most cancers, there are multiple causes and risk factors for anal cancer. One significant correlation to note is the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus , which is a common viral infection. Roughly 85% of women and 91% of men will get HPV by the time they are 45. Detected in the majority of anal cancer cases, HPV is considered a major factor in causing anal cancer . The HPV vaccine has been effective in reducing rates of infection and reducing rates of certain types of cancer.
Other risk factors include:
- Having many sexual partners over a lifetime
- Engaging in anal sex
- A history of HPV-associated cancer, including cervical, vulvar or vaginal cancer
- Being over 50
- Taking medications that suppress the immune system
What Is Anal Cancer
Anal cancer is a rare form of cancer that occurs within the anal canal, where normal cells mutate, become abnormal and multiply, forming tumors. These tumors invade nearby tissue and can separate and spread to different parts of the body, especially to the lymph nodes, lungs and liver.
Anal cancer is rare, representing only around 0.5% of all new cancer cases reported each year, or nearly 8,600 people . On average, 86,000 Americans are living with anal cancer annually, and the five-year survival rate for anal cancer is approximately 70%.
What Are The Differences Between Internal Vs External Hemorrhoids
Hemorrhoids can exist deep inside the rectum, and this internal type is not visible to the naked eye. On the other hand, external hemorrhoids are easily seen on visual examination. Often, patients may not be aware that they have internal hemorrhoids because they are typically painless. The one symptom associated with internal hemorrhoids is painless bleeding. However, participating in an activity such as heavy lifting can cause a prolapsed hemorrhoid, which is an internal hemorrhoid that has pushed through the anus.
On the other hand, external hemorrhoids are incredibly noticeable and painful, and these are the type you may try to treat with over-the-counter topical hemorrhoid cream for relief.
Recommended Reading: What Does It Feel Like To Have Hemorrhoids
Essential Orgs For Hemorrhoid Information
This site provides a comprehensive review of what hemorrhoids are, what causes them, and how to treat them. In cases when pain is severe and hemorrhoids aren’t healing with at-home treatment, in-office treatment by a healthcare provider is necessary. This can involve surgical and nonsurgical options.
The Mayo Clinic offers trusted guidance on symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment of hemorrhoids. You can also find answers to specific questions about home remedies and hemorrhoid treatment during pregnancy.
What Are Hemorrhoids Symptoms Causes Diagnosis Treatment And Prevention
Hemorrhoids are enlarged and swollen veins around the outside of the anus or in the lower rectum. The rectum is the last part of the bowel and leads to the anus, the opening at the end of the bowel where fecal matter leaves the body.
Everyone has hemorrhoidal tissue in this area thats made up of blood vessels, connective tissue, and some muscle. These cushions dont always become enlarged or distended, but as we age, this phenomenon becomes more common causing what we call hemorrhoids, also known as piles.
Hemorrhoids can be caused in a number of ways, most commonly by straining to make a bowel movement. Lifting heavy objects, along with other activities that may cause straining, can also lead to hemorrhoids. Experiencing increased pressure during pregnancy and being overweight are other contributing factors.
Hemorrhoids may be painful and particularly bothersome if they are recurrent, but they’re not dangerous or life-threatening, and symptoms usually go away within a few days. There are plenty of effective ways to treat them, as well as options for the less common types of hemorrhoids that may be more problematic.
Don’t Miss: How Do I Know If I Got Hemorrhoids
Signs You May Have Hemorrhoids
The symptoms of hemorrhoids typically depend on the location. Signs and symptoms may include:
- Bleeding during bowel movementsâyou might notice small amounts of bright red blood on your toilet tissue or in the toilet.
- Itching around your anus.
- Pain or discomfort around the anus.
- Swelling around your anus.
- A lump near your anus, which may be sensitive or painful.
Hemorrhoids: Signs Symptoms And Complications
Andy Miller, MD, is board-certified in internal medicine and infectious disease. He is an associate professor at Weill Cornell Medicine in New York City.
For most people, the signs and symptoms of hemorrhoidsitchiness, swelling, discomfortwill be mild and respond to home remedies. In a minority of cases, however, hemorrhoid signs and symptoms will be severe enough that they require treatment from a physician. Rarely, hemorrhoids that cause significant blood loss or a blood clot can be life-threatening. It’s important to note that one of the chief calling cards of hemorrhoids, blood in or on the stool or on toilet paper, should never be considered normal. While the cause could indeed be hemorrhoids, a more serious condition could be afoot.
Hemorrhoids can come with external and/or internal symptoms, depending on how they form.
Hemorrhoids on the outside of the anus are known as external hemorrhoids. A hard lump might be felt in that area and can often be uncomfortable because it is irritated by bowel movements and by wiping with toilet paper. External hemorrhoids are painful because of the many nerve endings located on the skin around the anus.
Recommended Reading: How Bad Can Hemorrhoids Get
Southern Cross Medical Library
The purpose of the Southern Cross Medical Library is to provide information of a general nature to help you better understand certain medical conditions. Always seek specific medical advice for treatment appropriate to you. This information is not intended to relate specifically to insurance or healthcare services provided by Southern Cross. For more articles go to the Medical Library index page.
Can You Take Caffeine If You Have Hemorrhoids
It is recommended to avoid caffeine or caffeinated products as they can make the digestive issue worse and thus prevents the healing of hemorrhoids. Coffee or caffeinated products make the stool hard which makes using the restroom more difficult. It is recommended to avoid food or drinks containing caffeine, spices, low fibre while suffering from hemorrhoids.
Don’t Miss: What Doctor To See If You Have Hemorrhoids
What Causes External Hemorrhoids
The most common cause of external hemorrhoids is repeated straining while having a bowel movement. Hemorrhoids develop when the veins of the rectum or anus become dilated or enlarged and can be either internal or external. External hemorrhoids are usually found beneath the skin that surrounds the anus.
There is a range of symptoms that can affect a person with hemorrhoids. Symptoms tend to vary depending on the severity of your hemorrhoids. Some of the symptoms that you may have include the following:
You may notice bleeding when using the bathroom. This includes seeing blood on toilet paper or in the toilet. Lumps around the anus may feel as if they are swollen.
These symptoms may also occur because of other conditions. But if you experience these symptoms, you should schedule an exam with your doctor.
Symptoms Of Thrombosed External Hemorrhoids
External hemorrhoids can be felt as bulges at the anus, but they usually cause few of the symptoms that are typical of internal hemorrhoids.
External hemorrhoids can cause problems, however, when blood clots inside them. This is referred to as thrombosis. Thrombosis of such a hemorrhoid causes an anal lump that is
- very painful,
- tender, and
- often requires medical attention.
The thrombosed hemorrhoid may heal with scarring, and leave a tag of skin protruding in the anus. Occasionally, the tag is large, which can make anal hygiene difficult or irritate the anus. Even after such a hemorrhoid goes away, a residual skin tag may remain, and this may need to be surgically removed.
Read Also: How Do You Make Hemorrhoids Stop Itching
How Hemorrhoids Are Diagnosed By Your Doctor
See your doctor if you think you might have hemorrhoids, especially if you notice bleeding from your anus or rectum, or have bloody stools. Your doctor will want to rule out more serious problems that can cause bleeding from the anus or rectum, such as cancer.
Hemorrhoid symptoms may also be similar to those of other anal and rectal problems, including anal fissures, abscesses, warts, and polyps.
Your doctor will ask about your medical history and will ask you to describe your symptoms. Questions about your eating habits, toilet habits, and enema and laxative use are likely to come up.
Your doctor will also perform a physical exam to look for lumps or swelling, prolapsed internal hemorrhoids, external hemorrhoids, skin irritation, skin tags, and anal fissures, which are small tears in the anus that can result in itching and bleeding. This will involve a visual examination of the area.
Your doctor may also perform a rectal exam to diagnose internal hemorrhoids, check the muscle tone of your anus, and check for blood in the stool. This is done with a gloved, lubricated finger and a tool called an anoscope.
An anoscope is a type of endoscope a hollow, lighted tube that is inserted a few inches into the anus to help the doctor see any problems inside the lining of the rectum. This procedure is performed in the doctors office and doesnt require anesthesia.
Your doctor may also recommend additional tests to rule out other causes of bleeding, especially if you are over age 40.
Final Words For Internal Hemorrhoids
Its always hard to notice someone with hemorrhoids because the symptoms can only be experienced by the patient themselves. And a lot of patient doesnt even bother to inform their doctors about these conditions because they think to find the condition embarrassing.
And finding symptoms of internal hemorrhoids is even harder than external ones because their symptoms dont include pain, unlike external hemorrhoids. But if youre able to identify the disease in its early stages, its very easy to treat it. The treatment doesnt even require aggressive methods and you can easily unburden this condition.
Recommended Reading: How Bad Can Hemorrhoids Hurt
Quick Relief Of Hemorrhoid Discomfort In San Antonio
You really donât have to go through another day putting up with the pain and discomfort of hemorrhoids. Not when an advanced, yet simple solution is nearby: hemorrhoid banding in San Antonio. At Gastroenterology Consultants of San Antonio, our dedicated physicians perform a nonsurgical procedure in minutes that could bring you lasting relief from hemorrhoids. For all your gastroenterology needsâfrom colonoscopies to endoscopies to digestive disorders, to liver problems and even nutrition and weight lossâweâre here to support you every step of the way. And we strive to be where you are: In six convenient clinic locations and three accredited endoscopy centers across San Antonio.
To learn more or schedule an appointment, call 210-614-1234 or to use our online form.
Types Of Hemorrhoids: Internal And External
Hemorrhoids are either internal or external.
Internal Hemorrhoids These hemorrhoids develop inside the rectum and are not usually visible to the naked eye. Internal hemorrhoids generally don’t hurt, but they often bleed painlessly.
In some cases, internal hemorrhoids may protrude through the anus and can be seen, which is known as becoming prolapsed. When this happens, they will usually shrink back inside the rectum on their own or can be pushed back in.
External Hemorrhoids These hemorrhoids develop under the skin around the outside of the anus. These are the most uncomfortable hemorrhoids and can be itchy or painful, and may feel lumpy. When a blood clot forms within an external hemorrhoid, this is known as a thrombosed hemorrhoid, which can result in severe, ongoing pain. Sometimes clots dissolve on their own, but if they dont, your doctor can remove the clot, a procedure thats most effective if done within 72 hours of the clot forming.
Recommended Reading: Do Hemorrhoids Go Away On Their Own
Hemorrhoid Home Remedies: Warm Sitz Bath
A sitz bath refers to sitting in a few inches of warm water three times a day for 15 to 20 minutes. A sitz bath may help decrease the inflammation of hemorrhoids. Drying off the anal area completely after each sitz bath is important for minimizing moisture that irritates the skin surrounding your rectal area.
When To See The Doctor
Hemorrhoids usually just need home remedies and time to go away. If the symptoms persist for more than a couple of days or get worse, however, you should consult a doctor. If theres consistent blood appearing during bowel movements, it could be a sign of colon cancer or other bowel diseases like Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis.
Recommended Reading: Who Do You See For Hemorrhoids
Signs Of Thrombosed Hemorrhoids
A thrombosed hemorrhoid is a hemorrhoid that has developed a blood clot inside. This can happen to both external and internal hemorrhoids. Signs and symptoms of a thrombosed hemorrhoid include:]
- Sudden onset of pain
- Constant pain following sudden onset of pain
Thrombosed hemorrhoids have the following characteristics:
- Blue or purple in color
- A lump or bulge
A thrombosed hemorrhoid will often hurt, but are not generally dangerous.
How To Know When To Talk To Your Doctor
Medically reviewed by Dr. Lauren R. Wilson.
When Charlie’s Angels star Farrah Fawcett died of anal cancer in 2009, it put a spotlight on a disease that isn’t talked about much but has early symptoms similar to everyday hemorrhoids. Understanding the risk factors and the differences between anal cancer and hemorrhoids is critical to staying healthy. Here’s what you should know.
Also Check: What Doctor To See Hemorrhoids
What Food To Avoid In Hemorrhoids
If a person is suffering from the condition of hemorrhoids then he/she must avoid the following foods.
- Processed meat: When meat is processed then it means a lot of preservatives are added which can have a very harmful effect on the digestive tract of a person.
- Polished rice: People eat polished rice which is completely white and is stripped of all the fiber and nutrition. If rice is polished then it is full of starch. It means they are completely filled with carbohydrates which can lead to constipation.
- Deep-fried food: Avoid eating food products that are deep-fried as they not only deprived of all the nutritional value but they are also harmful to the liver.
- Dairy: If a person is in a habit of using skim milk then it may lead to constipation which is not good if a person is suffering from the problem of hemorrhoids.
- Caffeinated food: a person should completely avoid beverages like tea, coffee, and colas if he/she is suffering from the problem of the piles.
What Are The Causes Of External Hemorrhoids
The most common cause of hemorrhoids is repeated straining while having a bowel movement. This is often caused by severe cases of constipation or diarrhea. Straining gets in the way of blood flow into and out of the area. This results in the pooling of blood and enlargement of the vessels in that area.
Pregnant women may also be at an increased risk of hemorrhoids because of the pressure that the uterus places on these veins.
Don’t Miss: What Causes Hemorrhoids In Females
Signs Of Internal Hemorrhoids
Internal hemorrhoids are the most common type of hemorrhoid. These swellings develop inside the anal canal.
Small hemorrhoids stay inside the anal canal and cannot be seen or felt by the person affected by them. Larger hemorrhoids may fall outside the anus in a process called prolapse, often during a bowel movement or while the buttocks are being wiped. Hemorrhoids which prolapse may go back inside the anal canal on their own or may be pushed back in by the affected person.
Internal hemorrhoids generally cause no pain. Noticeable signs and symptoms of internal hemorrhoids include:
- Bright red blood in feces, on toilet paper after wiping, or in the toilet bowl
- Bodily tissue falling outside the anus, i.e., prolapse
- Mucal or fecal discharge
- A feeling of not having fully evacuated the bowels
Additional signs of a prolapsed internal hemorrhoid include:
- Itching around the anus, i.e.,pruritus ani
- A lump felt outside the anus
An internal hemorrhoid cannot be seen unless it prolapses. A prolapsed internal hemorrhoid has the following characteristics:
- Approximately the size of a grape
- A rubbery texture
- Skin colored or of reddish appearance
- Can usually be pushed inside the anus
- There may be more than one
If an internal hemorrhoid cannot be pushed back into the anus, it may become trapped by the sphincter muscle. This is called a strangulated hemorrhoid and can cause severe pain.
Bleeding From The Anus
A common sign of hemorrhoids is bleeding from the anus. Blood from hemorrhoids is likely to be a brighter red because it comes directly from arteries or veins. The blood can be found:
- On toilet paper after wiping
- In the toilet bowl
Anal bleeding is a symptom of several other conditions, including:
Anal fissure, anal abscess and anal fistula
Bright red blood can also be a sign of an anal fissure, anal abscess and/or anal fistula.
- An anal fissure is a small tear or sore in the skin of the anal canal
- An anal abscess is a pocket near the anus filled with pus
- An anal fistula is a tunnel that runs from the end of the bowel to the skin around the anus
Symptoms of these conditions that are not shared with hemorrhoids include:
- Anal fissure can cause sharp pain during and after passing a stool, while hemorrhoid pain is normally less severe
- An anal abscess can cause a firm, warm, tender, non-thrombosed lump around the anus. Abscesses may sometimes cause fever
- Anal fistula commonly forms after a previous abscess
Polyps are another type of growth that can be found in similar parts of the body to hemorrhoids. A polyp in the colon or rectum can also cause bleeding. In the case of colorectal polyps, blood can sometimes be seen in the feces. If a person has polyps they may also experience:
- Abdominal pain
- Mucus from the anus
- A change in bowel habits
Colon cancer and rectal cancer
You May Like: How Painful Can Hemorrhoids Be